Analysis and Implementation of Secure Electronic Mail Protocols

(This work supported by USAF Rome Laboratory, NSA and Air Force Office of Scientific Research)

1. Introduction

An ultimate goal of research in high-confidence systems is the development of theories, technologies, and practices which will routinely assure the correctness, safety and security of systems. This paper defines a formal design process by which we are able to both synthesize and verify a secure electronic mail system built from hardware and software components.

Over the past year, a team comprised of E-Systems, ORA, Rome Lab, NSA, Syracuse University, and Wilkes University has been working on formal descriptions, analysis, and implementations of a secure electronic mail system.

The center of activity was NSA's Multilevel Information System Security Initiative (MISSI) layer described below. In addition, we investigated an electronic mail application running on top of MISSI called the Defense Messaging System (DMS). In order to analyze the lower level details of MISSI, we investigated Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM), which is similar to MISSI.

MISSI is a National Security Agency (NSA) program, designed to send protected messages over unprotected networks such as Internet. MISSI provides the following security services: data integrity and authentication (via hashing, digital signatures, and certificate authentication); confidentiality (via public and secret cryptography); non-repudiation with proof of origin; and non-repudiation with proof of receipt (optional). Users' public cryptography information is posted in the public distributed database called the Directory, in files called certificates [SDN.701, X500]. Users are authorized by certification authorities (CAs), which issue certificates ("tickets") to the users.

MISSI-capable workstations are equipped with either FORTEZZA Cards (F) or FORTEZZA Plus cards (FP), or they have no cards. A FORTEZZA card is a credit card sized Personal Computer Memory Card Interface Association (PCMCIA) card, used to perform security services such as encryption. F cards handle Sensitive but Unclassified (SBU) messages, and FP cards handle Secret (S) messages. Users perform MISSI functions using software called User Agent (UA), which interfaces with the software and hardware of the Card. Each user can have several "personalities" of possibly different security levels.

MISSI is a more complex version of Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM). MISSI relies on several standards: X.500 for Directory services, X.509 for certificate management, FORTEZZA and MSP SDN.701 for security services, and X.400 suite or RFC822/MIME for message transport (Fig. 1). If X.400 is used, ACP 123 and its Annexes must be used.

1. message preparation          e-mail program (e.g. emacs)
2. message content format       User Agent (UA) based on MISSI, 
                                and X.420 or RFC822 
3. security services            MSP protocol, based on SDN.701 
4. message transport            X.411 or SMTP(MIME) 
         Fig.1: MISSI message preparation architecture
At the lower layers, we are implementing the Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) protocol. PEM, as described in RFC 1421, is a simpler version of MISSI. It supports both public and private key cryptography, authentication using X.509 certificates, and integrity checking using signed hash functions.

The Defense Messaging System (DMS) is a layer built on top of the MISSI architecture that implements an e-mail system which handles messages at a variety of levels of trust.

Our work includes formalizing requirements, architecture and design of DMS, MISSI and PEM. We see this as a model of collaboration on efforts that involve industry adoption of formal techniques. This transfer has been coordinated between the universities, government, and commercial industry. As a collaboration team, the group has been able to make greater progress on the formalization of the MISSI program elements than any individual team member could expect to accomplish alone. This paper provides a description of the progress of the group in the specific areas of: 1) problems surfaced working on a formalization of the Defense Messaging System (DMS) requirements; and 2) the development of a formal design process for hardware and software applied to Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) which is similar to MISSI.

Section 2 discusses work on the analysis of DMS requirements. Section 3 presents modeling of MISSI using PROMELA. Section 4 is a discussion of the hardware and software design process as applied to PEM. At the end of each section there is a discussion of the impact of the work on the requirements, design and implementation processes.

2 Analysis of DMS Requirements

2.1 Introduction

In this section, we describe ORA's effort in DMS requirements analysis. The purpose of this effort was to develop an approach for modeling a system that used MISSI security technology. Due to current commercial interest, we chose to examine a part of the Defense Message System (DMS), called the User Agent (UA). Our goal was to formulate a modeling method of the UA requirements, which could aid system engineers in uncovering potential ambiguities and inconsistencies in the informal requirements. Additionally, we wanted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method by showing where some of the DMS requirement descriptions needed to be augmented.

E-Systems, a DMS developer, provided ORA with a pared down version of the set of requirements that were relevant for this effort. Since even this list of requirements was large and the semantic concepts that they covered were diverse, we needed to develop an approach that could aid in surfacing potential problems, but would not entail the cost and complexity of a comprehensive model. ORA developed a mixed approach that integrated the informal specification with a partially formalized specification. We constructed a simplified state machine model with one temporal-logic construct in order to express important aspects of the requirements. Various underlying mathematical constructs that were not directly relevant were left at an informal level.

2.2 Modeling Method

The DMS requirements refer to properties of a large and complex system. Consider the following requirement. Originator Indication

Within the MMHS, when the originator field is present, it should include the directory name (if one is available) in the formal-name sub-field (auto fill-in). The free-form-name or telephone-number sub-fields may also be present. This service shall be supported. When this indication is present it must be displayed to the user. (See X.400 B.55)

An attempt to mathematically model this requirement fully, would include not only higher-level information such as whether a service is implemented, but lower-level information about fields and subfields, the user's capability to interact with them, etc. This would be a considerable undertaking and the results would be complex. Moreover, these entities are often not mentioned elsewhere in other requirements, and so it would be of little use to model them for surfacing potential requirement conflicts. In addition, the added complexity would reduce the likelihood practitioners would read and benefit from the specification.

The first design decision was to identify high level information in the requirements, with the emphasis on concepts that were common to many of the requirements. The main aspects of the requirements that were initially examined were whether a UA service is supported, and how a message indication should be displayed. Although indications are usually displayable, there are a variety of ways in which this can occur. For example, they may be displayable in a regular fashion or they may need to be displayed "prominently."

The second design decision was to specify the model in a syntactic form that was extremely simple. We used notational conventions familiar from mathematics and programming languages, and we kept the formal logic down to a minimum. The underlying structures were a state machine and messages. In the current version of the model, the emphasis has been on simplicity, even if it means that some of the specification details are suppressed. This aids in the accessibility of the presentation, but has the potential for leaving some ambiguities unresolved.

The specification begins with some of the essential aspects of the UA state machine and then the individual requirements are modeled. Of course, it would be useful to have as full a definition of the UA as possible, in order to capture completely all of the details that might be mentioned in the requirements. However, the presentation is simplified by initially avoiding a laborious explanation of aspects of the UA that are not needed for most requirements. Where needed in the requirements, additional constructs were inserted in the specification.

The individual requirements for DMS have considerable history (having evolved through various organizations and documents), and engineers would like to continue to base their work on these individual statements. Thus, we chose to present the model in a largely 1-1 correspondence with the requirements.

2.3 Example

We illustrate the modeling approach by presenting the form of a sample requirement.

REQUIREMENT (from E-Systems)

acp.123.201.j Typed body - acp123

If the type of the body is important to provide context for the message, it must be displayed to the user.


Describe mode and content of display. Attempt to describe when display is required.


need_body_type_for_context(msg) is the function that returns True when the reader of msg needs to know the body type to understand it.

There may be multiple body parts. The terms body_type and need_body_type_for_context, used in the specification below, have a hidden index for selecting a particular body part.




  UA.display_mode.body_type = regular
  AND UA.display_content.body_type = MSG.body_type


need_body_type_for_context(MSG) = UNKNOWN


a) What criteria does the UA use to determine whether the reader needs to see the body type of a message?

2.4 Impact

The result of this effort is the development of an approach for modeling a large set of requirements with a diverse semantic content. The level of formality introduced, although not comprehensive, was effective at surfacing ambiguities in the specification. The modeling method also maintained a close correspondence with the original informal requirements.

Ideally, this type of modeling and analysis of the requirements would be performed once, instead of by each developer of a commercial system that needs to meet these requirements.

This work is in progress and the final results will be included in a report that will be delivered to the Air Force.

3. Modeling MISSI using Promela

In this section, we describe a Wilkes University effort in modeling MISSI. We formally defined various requirements either directly or indirectly implied in the standards and documents describing MISSI, such as message structure and MISSI access and forwarding policy. We wrote a specification for MISSI sender, receiver, forwarding, local cache, and a Secure Network Server (SNS).

We chose formal language PROMELA, based on Hoare's CSP, to specify and test various MISSI components. PROMELA is a language based on Hoare's CSP and implemented in C. SPIN is the publicly distributed automated verification tool which supports PROMELA.

PROMELA uses processes that can be thought of as C functions executed concurrently. PROMELA uses channels for communication. A channel is a FIFO queue of a certain capacity. The following syntax is used to append a message type msg_type with values expr1 and expr2 to channel q: q!msg_type(expr1, expr2). q?msg means "receive message msg on channel q."

SPIN can use assert statements, never claims and Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) statements for validation. Assert statements state properties of data at a given state. Never claims state properties of data at one or more states, and can be used to model LTL formulae.

3.1 Model Description

We modeled a MISSI system consisting of sender and receiver workstations, which are on separate LANs connected via a lossless WAN. Each LAN includes a Secure Network Server (SNS), which functions as a guard/firewall. A MISSI Local Area Network (LAN) is called an "enclave." As an outbound filter, i.e. when checking messages which are leaving the (Secret) enclave, SNS will pass messages according to the following criteria: all Secret (S) messages must be encrypted; all messages must be signed. SNS will also check if the message originator is allowed to send messages with security level lower than the enclave security level. As an inbound filter, i.e. when checking messages which are entering the enclave, SNS will accept messages according to one of the following three policies, messages must be signed; or messages must be encrypted; or any messages are accepted.

In order to fully utilize model checkers, it is necessary to have a manageable number of states, because a model checker keeps track of all possible states and performs analysis on this state table. There are several ways to reduce number of states: to bundle several consecutive execution steps in one unit using atomic statements; to reduce channel sizes, counters, assert and other statements, and number of variables in general; and to make an abstraction of the system and focus on the areas of interest only.

We employed all these approaches in our modeling. Our model consists of modules, where we abstract the modules which are less important by their input-output function, and focus on the modules of interest.

Currently, we have three different models of MISSI. The first is a detailed model of MISSI sender with an abstraction of local cache and certificate verification; the second also specifies the sender, but focuses on the local cache and certificate verification, and abstracts away the processes necessary to prepare a message for sending; the third model abstracts away the sending process, and focuses on the receiver.

3.2 Results

In order to formalize MISSI access policy, we put together a more formal definition of terms and rules scattered throughout MISSI documentation. We also proposed solutions in case of ambiguity, conflict, or incomplete specifications.

For example, we define the term "enclave security level" and specify the enclave requirement as: "Enclave security level is equal to the highest security level of the workstations which form the enclave. An enclave can contain workstations of lower security level. Workstation security level equals the maximum security level that the workstation is capable of processing, e.g. Secret if the workstation has FORTEZZA Plus card reader."

We formalized the local access policy as follows: "Any personality of security level X is allowed to send email to any other personality of security level Y, if: the messages sent are classified at the security level Z, where Z<=min(X,Y); and the messages sent have security service W applied.

Security service W applied to outgoing messages is determined as:

We ran our SPIN model on an Indigo-2 with 320Mb of RAM. The models took several seconds to execute. In the following paragraphs we list sample properties we proved.

If we forward a message, the resulting message classification must be greater that the individual message parts; and the resulting message must be organizational if the original was organizational.

It is necessary to prohibit non-organizational users from forwarding organizational messages. Therefore, we propose the following requirement: Every message sent must have the following property: If a message M consists of message text T and several body parts B1, B2, ... Bn, the message M is assigned organizational status iff any of the body parts has organizational status and it is possible to assign organizational status to M. If it is not possible to assign organizational status to M, the message cannot be sent.

In order to preserve the requirement that certification paths stored in the local cache are "unbroken", we have to delete all certificates and CRLs below an invalid one. This solution was missing from the local cache specification.

MSP functions are called in the proper order, e.g. msp_status after msp_login.

3.3 Impact

Since various layers in the MISSI protocol stack need to interface with each other, MISSI designers and implementors are faced with a multidimensional problem: first, MISSI system by itself is relatively complex, taking into account FORTEZZA cards, cryptography, authentication, and integrity checking; and second, MISSI must interface with the layer above it and the layer below it and with certificate management and manipulation standards. There are many issues when interfacing two or more (independent) standards, because the requirements might not be specified precisely, or they might conflict. For example,

MISSI messages which travel using X.400 must be sent as military messages (MMs). MMs are specified in ACP123 and ACP123 Annex A. MMs can be individual or organizational. Organizational messages commit organizations, and require special security concerns. For example, if MISSI user A sends an organizational military message to MISSI user B, can B forward it to a non-organizational user?

In our experience, English specifications are ambiguous and incomplete. Even specifications that sound correct can lead to incorrect results. At a minimum, English specifications should contain some kind of pseudo-code or flow diagram, in order to see more clearly all "if-then-else" branchings and other possibilities. Formal specifications and proofs, augmented with textual descriptions, provide a very clear and detailed documentation for the system. This aids in understanding of the system, and exposes weak areas of system design. Formal specification can be used as a blueprint for implementation, and formal proofs can be used as a blueprint for implementation testing.

Formal verification assures of desired system properties. Desired system properties consist of original specification, enhanced by additional requirements that formal specification uncovers.

SPIN is useful as a tool, especially since it resembles C. Model checkers are easy to learn and use, and they provide quick specification and testing ability with the focus on the control path. The tradeoff is that model checkers can run out of memory in case of detailed data analysis and/or very large models. The best approach is to abstract away all unnecessary details and/or divide a model into several sub-models and validate each sub-model separately. The sub-models can represent the same system, where each sub-model emphasizes a particular feature of the system and simplifies the other features (e.g. one sub-model focuses on login and logout, another on sending mail, another on receiving mail). The sub-models can be parts of a bigger model (e.g. each submodel is a layer in a layered protocol.)

4. Assured Implementation

In this section we describe an ongoing effort at Syracuse University to create a highly-assured implementation of Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) using a combination of theorem-provers, model checkers, formal specification refinement tools, and hardware compilers. One purpose of the effort is to demonstrate the practicality of a formal design process for high-confidence hardware and software.

The work described here builds on two previous efforts to formally model NSA's Multilevel Information System Security Initiative (MISSI). The first effort by Johnson, Saydjari, and Van Tassel in [MISSISP] defines various MISSI security properties in higher-order logic. The MISSI Certificate Authority Workstation (CAW) has been modeled by Marron using PROMELA and the SPIN model checker, [MISSISPIN].

MISSI is based in part on Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM). PEM is described in four Request for Comment (RFC) papers: RFC 1421, RFC 1422, RFC 1423, and RFC 1424, [RFC1421, RFC1422, RFC1423, RFC1424]. While the message field names and structure may differ somewhat between MISSI and PEM, the formal design process used here is applicable to both.

The design process used here is an extension of the design method described in the DIMACS Network Threats workshop [DIMACS]. In [DIMACS], PEM message structures and operations were defined and verified against top-level security properties such as privacy, authentication, and integrity.

We have 1) formally defined the security properties of interest, namely privacy, authenticity, non-repudiation, and integrity; 2) formally verified that the secure message structures and associated operations on them are correct and secure; and 3) generated C++ code from the formal descriptions which is correct by construction. We have used a variety of formal methods tools including the HOL90 theorem prover from University of Cambridge, the Spin model-checker from ATT, and the Specware specification refinement system and code generator from Kestrel Institute. The effort for formalization, synthesis and verification, while sometimes intricate, is well within the capabilities of engineers who have formal methods training.

Section 4.1 gives an overview of the high-confidence design process. Section 4.2 describes the design and verification of the top-level PEM processes such as the sender and receiver processes. Section 4.3 describes how C++ is generated from verified specification descriptions. Section 4.4 gives an overview of the hardware design process.

4.1 Design Process Overview

The specification and implementation of PEM is divided into two parts - the control path and the data path. The control path in PEM corresponds to the sender and receiver processes. The data path in PEM contains values derived from actual message structures (e.g. ENCRYPTED, MIC_CLEAR, and MIC_ONLY), and operations on messages such as encryption, hashing, and integrity checking.

The control path is described using a process algebra and verified by a model checker. Data path objects such as messages are described in higher-order logic along with various operations on messages. These operations are shown to satisfy the desired security properties.

Message structures, and the operations on them, are implemented in both hardware and software. Cryptographic algorithms such as encryption and hashing are done in hardware. Other message operations, such as integrity checking, are implemented in C++ which have been obtained by a specification refinement process followed by code generation.

Both hardware and software operations on messages are described and verified in higher-order logic. Message structures are defined as abstract data types. Doing so leads to straightforward definitions of functions for message creation and interpretation.

Security operations such as integrity checking are defined using encryption and hash algorithms as parameters and message destructor functions to access parameter values such as specific hash function names, message integrity codes, etc. The correctness of these operations is verified using higher-order logic (see [DIMACS]). C++ code for these operations is obtained by specification refinement and code generation [Specware95].

The actual implementation of hash and encryption functions is done using Xilinx field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) and/or custom VLSI circuits. The functions and implementations are described and verified in higher-order logic. FPGA netlists and VLSI layouts are obtained by compiling the implementation descriptions in higher-order logic into hardware generation functions within a VLSI CAD system [HOL2L].

4.2 Sender and Receiver Processes

PEM sender and receiver processes are implemented in C++ which are specified using PROMELA and the SPIN model checker, [SPIN]. The sender and receiver processes correspond to the ``control path'' of a process. They specify the functions called and the sequence of the function calls. For example, at the top level, the receiver process does the following: 1) determines the message type, i.e., ENCRYPTED, MIC_CLEAR, MIC_ONLY, etc.; 2) performs authentication based on the certificates included in the message header; 3) decrypts and/or decodes the message text; and 4) performs an integrity check by comparing the hash of the received message to the message integrity code (MIC) contained in the message header.

At this level, functions (such as the integrity checking function), are treated as ``black boxes'' which take certain inputs and produce certain outputs. The details of what takes place inside the ``black boxes'' are described, verified, and synthesized elsewhere. The correctness of the functions is assumed at this level. Function calls correspond to ports or channels in the process description.

Modal properties of the sender and receiver processes are verified using SPIN. Properties such as, it is always the case that the integrity checking function is called for all message types, are verified.

For example, all MIC_CLEAR messages must be checked for integrity. We model function MIC_CLEAR_is_Intact as a ``black box'' which takes a message and produces a Boolean response stating if the message is intact or not. d1,d2,d3,d4,d5,d6,d7,d8,d9,d10 and d11 are fields in PEM message header, and d12 is the data portion of the message.

:: (rsp == OK) -> skip;                    /*proceed,message is
:: (rsp == FAIL) -> goto error_processing; /*based on the error
                                             take appropriate action*/

The function MIC_CLEAR_is_Intact is a port in the above process description. The result of the integrity check is a value rsp returned by MIC_CLEAR_is_Intact. If rsp is false, i.e., if the message is not intact then an error has occurred. If rsp is true, then the message is intact.

The correctness and implementation of MIC_CLEAR_is_Intact is shown in the following section.

4.3 Software

To illustrate how security functions are implemented with assurance, we examine how message integrity is checked for MIC_CLEAR messages, i.e., for messages which are transmitted in the clear but include a message integrity code (MIC).

is_Intact is defined for message integrity checking. It takes several parameters: 1) verify - a function verifies the signature, which takes a plain text message, a signature and a key, and returns true if the signature is signed on the given plain text with the private key paired with the given key, otherwise, it returns false. 2) hash - the message digest algorithm; 3) message - the plain text part of the message retrieved from the mail; 4) ekey - the public key of originator used by the recipient to verify a signature; and 5) mic - the received digital signature of the message. It declares both the message and its digital signature are intact if the verification of the digital signature of the original message against the hash of the received message succeeds.

    |- forall verify hash message mic ekey.
         is_Intact verify hash message mic ekey =
         verify (hash message) mic ekey
The assumptions made about the received message are: 1) the received signature is generated by signing the hash (message digest) of the transmitted message; 2) it is computationally infeasible to find two messages m1 and m2 which hash to the same value, so if two hashes are equal the two messages are the same; and 3) the verification process succeeds if-and-only-if the signature is generated on the plain text that is being verified.

What we want is for is_Intact to be true is-and-only-if the received message is identical to the one transmitted. Under these assumptions, the correctness theorem is proved using the definition of is_Intact with the assumed properties in the antecedent of the nested implication.

    |- forall verify sign hash txmessage rxmessage txmic rxmic ekey
         (txmic = sign (hash txmessage) dkey) ==>
         (rxmic = txmic) ==>
         (forall m1 m2. (hash m1 = hash m2) ==> (m1 = m2)) ==>
         (forall s1 s2. verify s1 (sign s2 dkey) ekey = s1 = s2) ==>
         ((rxmessage = txmessage) 
           = is_Intact verify hash rxmessage rxmic ekey)
The definition and correctness theorem for is_Intact show that given the proper parameters, message integrity will be checked correctly. For each type of PEM message, the parameters needed by is_Intact must be extracted from the various message fields.

PEM messages are thought of as tuples. Each kind of PEM message is defined as a data type in higher-order logic with accessor functions to obtain the parameters within the message header fields. By defining PEM messages as types, we can eliminate tuples which never occur which simplifies verification. How types are introduced in higher-order logic is described by Melham in [Types].

MIC_CLEAR_is_Intact shown below is the integrity checking function for MIC_CLEAR messages. It has as part of its definition the use of message accessor functions to get the parameter values needed by is_Intact.

MIC_CLEAR_is_Intact msg =
 (let micInfo = get_MIC_CLEAR_MIC_Info msg  
 let ekey =  
 get_Key_from_ID (get_OriginatorAsymID_info mic_clear_msg)  
 (MIC_sign_select micInfo)  
 (MIC_hash_select micInfo)  
 (get_MIC_CLEAR_text msg)  
 (get_MIC_mic micInfo) ekey) 

The correctness of MIC_CLEAR_is_Intact is declared by the following

|- forall mic_clear_msg sign txmessage dkey.
 let micInfo =  
 get_MIC_CLEAR_MIC_Info mic_clear_msg  
 let ekey = get_Key_from_ID  
 (get_Originator_AsymID_info mic_clear_msg)  
 let hash = MIC_hash_select micInfo  
 verify = MIC_sign_select micInfo  
 rxmessage = get_MIC_CLEAR_text mic_clear_msg  
 (get_MIC_mic micInfo = sign (hash txmessage) dkey)  
 (forall m1 m2. (hash m1 = hash m2) ==> (m1 = m2)) ==>  
 (forall m1 m2. verify m1 (sign m2 dkey) ekey = m1 = m2) ==>  
 ((txmessage = rxmessage) =  
  MIC_CLEAR_is_Intact  mic_clear_msg)  
The above correctness theorem states that MIC_CLEAR_is_Intact is true if-and-only-if the transmitted and received messages are the same provided the hash and signature verification functions gotten from the message header have the properties of being one-to-one and invertible, respectively.

With each kind of message formally defined as a data type with verified security functions, the types and functions are refined into code by the Specware specification refinement system [Specware]. Specware supports both composition of specifications and refinements (implementations) using category and sheaf theory [Specware95]. It depends heavily on refining abstract data types to concrete representations. The correctness of these representations is checked using the HOL theorem-prover. When the Specware refinement uses only existing data types and operations in its C++ library, code can be synthesized. The language of Specware is Slang [Specware]. Slang is Specware's specification language and roughly corresponds to the higher-order logic in the HOL system [HOL]. It is straightforward to map HOL terms into Slang.

4.4 Hardware

The cryptographic functions such as DES, RSA, MD-2, and MD-5 are implemented in hardware using an assured hardware design process. The assured hardware implementation process in is described in COMPASS '97 [COMPASS97].

The process uses a link between structural descriptions in higher-order and HOL, and the Mentor Graphics GDT VLSI design system [GDT]. A compiler called HOL2GDT [HOL2L] maps recursive and non-recursive structural descriptions in HOL to parameterized cell generators in GDT. These cell generators are called to create layouts and net lists for custom chips. The GDT net lists can be compiled into Xilinx net list format for FPGA implementations. The HOL2GDT compiler requires that every hardware component in HOL have a corresponding cell generator in GDT. New components are introduced into the GDT and HOL libraries by creating new cell generators from HOL definitions.

The hardware design process is as follows. HOL structural descriptions are compiled into GDT and simulated. Simulations can be multi-level so both logical and electrical simulations are possible. Simulation usually catches most of the errors. After the initial simulations are done and initial design corrections are made, formal verification is done. This catches the subtle errors.

This process has been used to create many designs, both custom VLSI circuits and FPGA implementations. [COMPASS97] describes a working bit-serial multiplier chip which was fabricated at MOSIS. Our intent is to use the same process to implement cryptographic functions such as DES, RSA, MD-2, and MD-5 in hardware.

4.5 Impact

The conclusions we draw from our implementation experience thus far are as follows:

In short, the high-confidence design process we used is promising and appears to be practical on design problems of meaningful size and scope.

5. Conclusions

The collaborative team of E-Systems, ORA, Rome Lab, NSA, Syracuse University, and Wilkes University has done a formalization of selected portions of DMS requirements, MISSI and PEM from formal specification to implementation over the last year. The formal approach has added greater clarity to the specification and assurance to the implementation.

Our conclusions are:

6. Bibliography