G. Cormode. Sketch techniques for massive data. In G. Cormode, M. Garofalakis, P. Haas, and C. Jermaine, editors, Synposes for Massive Data: Samples, Histograms, Wavelets and Sketches, Foundations and Trends in Databases. NOW publishers, 2011.

Sketch techniques have undergone extensive development within the past few years. They are especially appropriate for the data streaming scenario, in which large quantities of data flow by and the the sketch summary must continually be updated quickly and compactly. Sketches, as presented here, are designed so that the update caused by each new piece of data is largely independent of the current state of the summary. This design choice makes them faster to process, and also easy to parallelize.

“Frequency based sketches” are concerned with summarizing the observed frequency distribution of a dataset. From these sketches, accurate estimations of individual frequencies can be extracted. This leads to algorithms to find the approximate heavy hitters (items which account for a large fraction of the frequency mass) and quantiles (the median and its generalizations). The same sketches are also used to estimate (equi)join sizes between relations, self-join sizes and range queries. These can be used as primitives within more complex mining operations, and to extract wavelet and histogram representations of streaming data.

A different style of sketch construction leads to sketches for distinct-value queries. As mentioned above, using a sample to estimate the answer to a COUNT DISTINCT query does not give accurate results. In contract, sketching methods which can make a pass over the whole data can provide guaranteed accuracy. Once built, these sketches estimate not only the cardinality of a given attribute or combination of attributes, but also the cardinality of various operations performed on them, such as set operations (union and difference), and selections based on arbitrary predicates.

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